Git at first glance
As a distributed source version control system, Git is a quite complicated.
There are several components you will usually get touch with while using Git.
Pretty self-explanatory, local machine means the
local machine than you are directly coding on or using. For example if you are coding in a remote server through SSH, that
remote server is also called local machine, as that is the computer that you use to do the work directly.
Several components exist in local machine:
Working directory, is the most trivial conception of coding. Why? say, you modify a file
vim, then save it by
:x, now this
README.md file definitely in Working directory.
Files in working directory have 2 state:
Files that are newly created and have never been versioned by Git.
A fresh created file should be an untracked file, and the way to ask Git to take care of this file is
git add FILE_NAME
This command tells Git,
Go to take care of that guy...
Once ever the file is traced by
git add, git started to aware of the content change of this file.
Files that have been versioned by Git.
Git will monitor which file is modified, deleted and renamed.
Add untracked files or modify tracked files would trigger this mechanism, use
git status to see the changes you made since last commit.
If you want to use Git to save files, you need to first store the current state in an area called
Staging area. There are several way to achieve this:
git add FILE_NAMEto add files that already exist
git rm FILE_NAMEto delete a file that is being tracked
git mv ORIGIN_NAME DEST_NAMEto move or rename a file. This usage is exactly same with the Linux command
You need to place any file that you want to commit into this area, including files that you want to delete and move.
This area will not be used very often, only when you want to do some operations about original commits without affecting files in working directory.
We usually use this area when we
pull commit. Operations like these will probably mess up you working directory.
To avoid this, you can store working directory temporarily in stash.
After finishing your operation, you want to resume your work,
git stash pop
Now you want to save the changes
permanently, let’s do the commit
git commit -m"COMMIT_MESSAGE"
All files in staging area will be saved permanently after commiting.
You can find the local commit log by using:
And you can have better printing and format by:
git log --color --graph --pretty=format:'%Cred%h%Creset -%C(yellow)%d%Creset %s %Cgreen(%cr) %C(bold blue)<%an>%Creset' --abbrev-commit --
This is the local references of remote host.
This is to compare the relative relationship between real remote repository and you local repository.
This ref will be synchronized whenever
A remote repository is a git repository where you will not do the code directly on it.
The purpose of this repository is to store you local commit in a distributed fashion.
Technically speaking, after commiting locall, your local machine still has the risk of disk failure.
To avoid this tragedy, we need a remote repository to save our code.